Slums and squatter settlements are visually striking. In photographs and on film, cardboard or corrugated-aluminium roofed shanties, stretching in some cases for miles, are typically compared – both visually and symbolically – with glass-and-steel skyscrapers and high-rise luxury apartments (Scarpaci, 2003). It is a known fact isolated areas such as slums and ghettos experience a high crime rate and drug rate discouraging people from living in areas near these places. This is due to the state of poverty that the people dwelling in the areas have.
These isolated areas tend to support a very small percentage of the population due to their hazardous nature. City planners are always in the task of seeking proper arrangements for different types of structures in order to provide maximum satisfaction for the residents and business organizations. However, the introduction of public and commercial building spaces such as malls or office building s in these isolated spaces will serve to reduce crime rates and integrate city outskirts with the city.
Many continue associating slums to pockets of poverty and violence, lacking any positive contribution to the city. Such views contribute to reinforce misleading stereotypes about slum dwellers and to perpetuate social segregation in the cities. The residents of slums themselves refer to this issue as an invisible wall that separates them from residents of the formal city. In developing the infrastructure in major towns, one should consider on how to make the isolated areas more accessible and secure for the dwellers. Architecture should serve many audiences (Riad, 2009). This point is clearly brought out in the design of a mall in an isolated settlement or a busy government office in such a place. The large inflow of people daily will tend to discourage crime practices and suppress unlawful actions.
Architects could make better use of intermodal passage hubs—linking road, bus, rail or bicycle—in structure keen links within urban areas, and could place more commercial activities at such hubs, reducing travels while helping outlying zones revolve around such protuberances (Mark & Shannon, 2012).There is substantial works on the importance of a sense of community in the creation of distinct and cohesive neighbourhoods. Planning literature has looked at the importance of community in terms of neighbourhood planning and neighbourhood organising.
Over history, leaders upgraded the security of their premises by consciously applying designs that took advantage of dense population in the city. Buildings provide the most conspicuous elements of a city as they show their unique characteristics. In ancient England, Kensington palace was a perfect example of city-scale security; its many doorways and the concept of the building being located in the city and protected by the enclosure of surrounding parks for security yet not for complete urban isolation.
Urbanization of the isolated centres will help to alleviate poverty, stop urban sprawl, give humans more social contact and hold the country’s population in order. However, open space must be left to improve the quality of a peaceful urban life. Architectural designs should always seek to increase the value of the surrounding. In the process of these planning, it is important not to distort the elements of community namely; membership, integration, influence and emotional connection. The new development should actually foster a sense of community and not cause division. Once a place starts developing well and draws good profits for the investors, the same force acquires a new force of inactivity.
Before sinking into such a venture, one needs to carry out a background survey to assess the community in different affected neighbourhoods to actually be able to identify the impacts of such programs, plans and designs based on the character of the community. This would yield information that would be used in evaluating pre-existing designs. With the concerning of site, material, and structure, structural design has been an instrument to advance human living conditions by protecting from peripheral threats and providing expediency since the past.
An example of people located there in the 15th Century, people of the tribe Dogon have worked to establish their own ethnic village in Mali, South Africa. The most essential factor, of Dogon people’s site choice was the concerns that the Niger River flowed near the cliff and there was a rivulet that flowed over the lower part during the wet season. Since the Dogon refused to convert to Islam thousands years ago, they chose to build their settlements across on the Bandiagara escarpment. They did not only improve the land limitation and prevent invasion, but also avoided water shortage without taking the risk of being submerged. This made the Dogon a very unique tribe (Terry, 2006).
For the constraint of this study, sense of community can be seen as a starting position for evaluating on going planning interventions within the community. It is through a better knowledge g of sense of community that neighbourhood planners and designers can better understand the impacts of their work on the people in the areas within which they work (Levine). Slums arose from political and economic intrigues between the state, industrial capitalists, and a growing urban poor and working class population during the emergence and development of the city’s capitalist economy. It is these relations that I argue are most consequential if we are to understand the emergence and resilience of slums.
The industrial revolution in Manchester saw a large influx of people in the urban centres. By then, there was a different gap between the social statuses of the citizens living there. Finally, the city was redesigned beautifully to be what it is currently. As the city developed, it expanded and reached its outskirts where development started taking place. The level of insecurity grew, reached a maximum then started daily declining.
The road network grew and it became easier to pay visits to each other developing a civil environment that in no time was well populated. Since the streets that were always empty before, new faces came in to fill thus a general reduction in the rates of crime. There was also innovation and creation that was seen in the city which endure with jobs in industries coming up (Akinmoladun, 2012).
Supportable places will need to renew an obligation and connection to the community. They suggest that the locality may be the suitable estimate for which integrative and all-inclusive tactics towards the security, socialism and comfort of a larger community can be realised.
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